After Mexico ceded California to the United States in 1848, a military governor assumed control of the territory. After California entered the Union in 1850, not one of California's first 11 governors was born in the state; its leadership was composed entirely of transplanted Americans (one even foreign-born). Jose Antonio Romualdo Pacheco, California's 12th governor, was the sole exception. He was born in Santa Barbara 19 years before California gained statehood. The list of Pacheco's political accomplishments in California is striking. He was a county judge, state senator, state treasurer, lieutenant governor, governor, congressman, brigadier general and minister plenipotentiary to several Latin American nations.